Does Melatonin Affect Birth Control Implant?

Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, plays a crucial role in regulating our sleep-wake cycle. With the increasing popularity of melatonin supplements for managing sleep disorders, concerns have arisen about potential interactions with other medications, including birth control implants. Birth control implants, small devices placed under the skin, release hormones to prevent pregnancy. This article aims to investigate does melatonin affect birth control implant? 

We will explore the functions of melatonin, how birth control implants work, the relationship between melatonin and hormones, existing research on the topic, expert opinions, and recommendations for safe usage.

Melatonin: Overview and Functions

Definition and Biological Role

Melatonin is a hormone produced primarily by the pineal gland in the brain. It helps regulate our sleep-wake cycle, also known as the circadian rhythm. 

Melatonin production increases in the evening as it gets darker, signaling the body to prepare for sleep. Conversely, its levels decrease during daylight hours, signaling the body to wake up.

Common Uses of Melatonin Supplements

People often use melatonin supplements to manage various sleep-related issues. Some of the most common uses include:

  • Insomnia: Individuals struggling to fall asleep or stay asleep may use melatonin to improve their sleep quality.
  • Jet lag: Travelers crossing time zones may take melatonin to help adjust their sleep patterns.
  • Shift work: People working irregular hours or night shifts might use melatonin to promote sleep during daytime hours.
  • Sleep disorders in children: Melatonin can help some children with sleep disorders like delayed sleep phase syndrome or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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does melatonin affect birth control implant

Side Effects and Potential Interactions

While melatonin is generally considered safe for short-term use, some people may experience side effects, such as dizziness, headaches, or drowsiness during the day. 

Additionally, melatonin supplements can potentially interact with other medications, like blood thinners, blood pressure medications, and antidepressants. 

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional before taking melatonin, especially if you are using other medications or have underlying health conditions.

Birth Control Implants: How They Work

Types of Birth Control Implants

Birth control implants are small, flexible rods that a healthcare provider inserts under the skin of the upper arm. There are two primary types of implants:

  • Etonogestrel implants: These implants release a synthetic hormone called etonogestrel, which is similar to progesterone. A popular brand of this type of implant is Nexplanon.
  • Levonorgestrel implants: These implants release a synthetic hormone called levonorgestrel. Brands include Norplant and Jadelle, though Norplant is no longer available in many countries.

Mechanism of Action

Birth control implants work by releasing a steady dose of hormones to prevent pregnancy. The hormones have three primary effects:

  • Inhibiting ovulation: The synthetic hormones prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs, reducing the chance of fertilization.
  • Thickening cervical mucus: The hormones thicken the mucus in the cervix, making it difficult for sperm to pass through and reach the egg.
  • Altering the uterine lining: The hormones also change the lining of the uterus, making it less suitable for a fertilized egg to implant and develop.

Efficacy and Potential Side Effects

Birth control implants are highly effective, with a failure rate of less than 1%. However, they can cause side effects in some users, such as:

  • Irregular bleeding or spotting
  • Changes in menstrual patterns
  • Mood swings
  • Weight gain
  • Headaches

Read More: Irregular Periods After IVF Failure

does melatonin affect birth control implant

Despite these potential side effects, many people find birth control implants to be a convenient and reliable form of contraception. It is essential to discuss any concerns with a healthcare provider before choosing a birth control method.

Does Melatonin Affect Birth Control Implant?

Melatonin’s Impact on Hormone Regulation

Melatonin influences various hormonal processes in the body, including the regulation of sex hormones. It plays a role in controlling the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), both crucial in the menstrual cycle and reproduction. Melatonin also appears to have an impact on the production of estrogen and progesterone, the primary female sex hormones.

Specific Interactions with Sex Hormones

Research suggests that melatonin may interact with sex hormones in several ways:

  • Estrogen regulation: Melatonin can modulate estrogen production by affecting the activity of enzymes responsible for estrogen synthesis.
  • Progesterone regulation: Studies show that melatonin may stimulate progesterone production in certain situations, such as during pregnancy. However, the exact mechanism is not fully understood.
  • Receptor binding: Melatonin can bind to estrogen and progesterone receptors, potentially influencing their function and hormonal signaling.

Research on Melatonin and Birth Control Implants

Review of Existing Studies

Evidence Supporting a Potential Interaction:

Some research suggests that melatonin could interact with hormonal contraceptives, including birth control implants. 

As melatonin influences the regulation of sex hormones, it is possible that taking melatonin supplements might affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives.

Evidence Against a Potential Interaction:

However, other studies have not found a significant impact of melatonin on hormonal contraception. 

In some cases, researchers observed no change in the efficacy of birth control implants when used alongside melatonin supplements. 

Additionally, several studies have indicated that melatonin does not interfere with the contraceptive action of birth control implants.

Limitations and Gaps in Current Research

Despite some research on this topic, there are limitations and gaps in the current understanding of the potential interaction between melatonin and birth control implants:

  • Limited number of studies: There are relatively few studies that have specifically examined the interaction between melatonin supplements and birth control implants.
  • Inconsistent findings: The results of existing studies are not entirely consistent, with some suggesting an interaction and others indicating no significant impact.
  • Differences in study design: Variations in study designs, sample sizes, and methods make it challenging to draw firm conclusions.

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Expert Opinions and Recommendations

Healthcare Professionals’ Views on Melatonin and Birth Control Implant Interactions

Healthcare professionals generally agree that more research is needed to determine if melatonin supplements have a significant impact on the efficacy of birth control implants. 

While some studies suggest a potential interaction, others do not. Given the inconsistency of the findings, healthcare providers often recommend caution and open communication when using melatonin supplements alongside hormonal contraceptives.

Recommendations for Safe Use of Melatonin Supplements with Birth Control Implants

To ensure the safe and effective use of melatonin supplements while using birth control implants, consider the following recommendations:

  • Consult your healthcare provider: Before taking melatonin supplements, discuss your intentions with a healthcare professional, particularly if you are using hormonal contraceptives or have other health concerns.
  • Monitor your menstrual cycle: Keep track of any changes in your menstrual cycle while using both melatonin supplements and birth control implants. Report any irregularities to your healthcare provider.
  • Follow dosage guidelines: Stick to the recommended dosage for melatonin supplements, and avoid taking higher doses without consulting a healthcare professional.
  • Be cautious with other medications: Be aware of potential interactions between melatonin and other medications you may be taking, as these could affect the efficacy of your birth control implant.


The potential interaction between melatonin supplements and birth control implants remains an area of interest and uncertainty. 

Although melatonin plays a role in hormone regulation, current research has yet to provide a clear answer as to whether melatonin supplements can affect the efficacy of birth control implants. 

Inconsistent findings and limitations in study designs highlight the need for further investigation. Until more conclusive evidence emerges, individuals using both melatonin supplements and birth control implants should consult their healthcare providers, monitor any changes in their menstrual cycles, and adhere to recommended dosages. 

By taking these precautions and staying informed, users can ensure the safe and effective use of melatonin supplements alongside birth control implants.


Can melatonin supplements affect the efficacy of birth control implants?

Current research is inconclusive, and more studies are needed to determine if melatonin supplements can affect the efficacy of birth control implants.

Is it safe to take melatonin supplements while using a birth control implant?

It is generally safe, but consult your healthcare provider before taking melatonin supplements if you’re using a birth control implant.

Do melatonin supplements interact with other medications?

Melatonin supplements can potentially interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners, blood pressure medications, and antidepressants. Consult your healthcare provider for advice.

What are the common side effects of melatonin supplements?

Some common side effects include dizziness, headaches, and daytime drowsiness.

Can melatonin supplements affect my menstrual cycle?

Melatonin may influence hormonal processes related to the menstrual cycle, but more research is needed to determine its exact impact.

How do birth control implants prevent pregnancy?

Birth control implants prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, thickening cervical mucus, and altering the uterine lining.

What are the potential side effects of birth control implants?

Some potential side effects include irregular bleeding, changes in menstrual patterns, mood swings, weight gain, and headaches.

Medical References

  • Andersen, L. P. H., Gögenur, I., Rosenberg, J., & Reiter, R. J. (2016). The safety of melatonin in humans. Clinical Drug Investigation, 36(3), 169-175.
  • Bitzer, J., & Simon, J. A. (2011). Current issues and available options in combined hormonal contraception. Contraception, 84(4), 342-356.
  • Brzezinski, A., & Debi, A. (1999). Phytoestrogens: the “natural” selective estrogen receptor modulators? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 85(1), 47-51.
  • Galano, A., Tan, D. X., & Reiter, R. J. (2011). Melatonin as a natural ally against oxidative stress: a physicochemical examination. Journal of Pineal Research, 51(1), 1-16.
  • Hill, S. M., Frasch, T., Xiang, S., Yuan, L., Duplessis, T., & Mao, L. (2009). Molecular mechanisms of melatonin anticancer effects. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(4), 337-346.
  • Kennaway, D. J. (2000). Effect of melatonin on the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the rat. Journal of Pineal Research, 29(2), 86-93.
  • Seib, C., & Anderson, R. (2003). Reliability of contraceptive use and its determinants among female adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32(5), 371-378.

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