What are Uterine Polyps, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment?

Have you ever experienced abnormal bleeding between your menstrual cycles or after menopause? If so, you may be dealing with uterine polyps. These small growths that form in the lining of the uterus affect millions of women worldwide. In this article, we will explore what are uterine polyps, their symptoms, and their causes. 

Early diagnosis is the key to prevent yourself from the complications of uterine polyps. These are non-cancerous but can cause severe bleeding and infertility, if not treated properly. 

What are Uterine Polyps?

Uterine polyps are small growths that develop on the lining of the uterus. While they are usually non-cancerous, their presence can still cause discomfort and lead to other complications. 

These polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter like a golf ball. 

Uterine polyps form after the overgrowth of the uterus wall. Polyps are attached to the uterus walls by a thin stalk.

What are Uterine Polyps

Uterine polyps normally stay in the uterus but in some cases, they can slip outside of the uterus towards the cervix and get bigger.  

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Symptoms of Uterine Polyps

  • One common symptom is irregular menstrual bleeding. Women with uterine polyps may experience heavy or prolonged periods, as well as spotting between cycles.
  • Another prevalent symptom is pelvic pain and cramping. The presence of uterine polyps can lead to inflammation and swelling in the uterus, which can result in discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen. 
  • Some women may also experience pain during sexual intercourse due to the pressure exerted on the uterine lining by the polyps. 

Causes of Uterine Polyps

The exact causes of uterine polyps are not fully understood, several factors have been linked to their development. 

  1. Hormonal Imbalances

One contributing factor is hormonal imbalances, particularly an excess of estrogen relative to progesterone. This hormonal imbalance can lead to overgrowth of the endometrial tissue, resulting in the formation of polyps.

  1. Chronic Inflammation

Another potential cause is chronic inflammation in the uterus. Inflammation can occur due to various reasons such as infections or repeated trauma to the uterine lining. 

This ongoing inflammation stimulates abnormal growth and increases the chances of developing uterine polyps. 

  1. Menopause

Additionally, age plays a significant role in their development, with women approaching menopause being more prone to developing these growths.

  1. Use of Tamoxifen

A medicine used to treat breast cancer can act as a stimulus for uterine polyps formation. 

What are Uterine Polyps

Diagnosing Uterine Polyps

Diagnosing uterine polyps typically involves a combination of methods that aim to accurately identify their presence and determine the best course of treatment.

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Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVUS)

One common method used for diagnosing uterine polyps is transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS). This non-invasive procedure uses sound waves to create images of the uterus and can help identify the size and location of any polyps present. 


Another diagnostic option is hysteroscopy, which allows doctors to directly visualize the inside of the uterus using a thin, flexible tube with a lighted camera attached. This procedure not only aids in diagnosis but also enables simultaneous removal of any identified polyps.

Treating Uterine Polyps

Once uterine polyps have been diagnosed, suitable treatment options can be considered based on factors such as: 

  • Woman’s age
  • Overall health
  • Extent of symptoms 
  • Desire for future fertility
  • Characteristics of the polyp itself

One approach often adopted for small or asymptomatic polyps is watchful waiting or hormonal therapy. 

However, if symptoms are severe or if there is suspicion of malignancy, surgical intervention may be necessary. 

Procedures like hysteroscopic resection or dilation and curettage (D&C) are usually performed under general anesthesia.

Potential Complications and Prevention

One potential complication is abnormal uterine bleeding, which refers to any menstrual bleeding that deviates from the usual patterns. 

This can include heavy or prolonged periods or bleeding between periods. While some women may experience no symptoms at all, others may suffer from pelvic pain or pressure.

Preventing uterine polyps is not always possible since their exact cause remains unknown. However, certain measures can help reduce the risk of developing these abnormal growths. 

  • Maintaining a healthy weight and adopting a well-balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables have been linked to a decreased risk of uterine polyps. 
  • Regular exercise not only helps maintain a healthy weight but also decreases the levels of estrogen circulating in the body, which has been associated with the development of these growths. 
  • Moreover, it is vital for women to stay vigilant about their reproductive health by scheduling regular gynecological check-ups and reporting any unusual symptoms promptly. 

This way, potential complications associated with uterine polyps can be detected early on and managed effectively.


In conclusion, uterine polyps are growths that form on the inner lining of the uterus and can cause various symptoms such as abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility. 

While the exact cause of uterine polyps is not known, hormonal imbalances and chronic inflammation are believed to play a role in their development. 

It is important for individuals experiencing any symptoms or concerns to seek medical attention for diagnosis and appropriate treatment options. 

Early detection and management of uterine polyps can help prevent complications and improve overall reproductive health. 

Remember to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance and support regarding uterine polyps.


Q1: What are uterine polyps?

A1: Uterine polyps are growths that develop in the inner lining of the uterus.

Q2: What are the symptoms of uterine polyps?

A2: Symptoms may include irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, pelvic pain, and infertility.

Q3: What causes uterine polyps?

A3: The exact cause is unknown, but hormonal imbalances and an overgrowth of cells in the uterus may contribute to their development.

Q4: Are uterine polyps cancerous?

A4: Most uterine polyps are non-cancerous (benign), but some can be cancerous (malignant).

Q5: Who is at risk for developing uterine polyps?

A5: Women who have gone through menopause, those with hormonal imbalances, and women on certain medications may be at higher risk.

Q6: How are uterine polyps diagnosed?

A6: Diagnosis is typically done through a pelvic exam, ultrasound, hysteroscopy, or biopsy.

Q7: Can uterine polyps affect fertility?

A7: Yes, uterine polyps can interfere with implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage. Removal may improve fertility outcomes.

Q8: How are uterine polyps treated?

A8: Treatment options include medication to regulate hormones, hysteroscopic removal during a minimally invasive procedure, or surgical removal if necessary.


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